Issues on differences between men and women have always been a source for dispute and different approaches in the available literature on women. Some have seen these differences resulting from the dissimilar socialization of men and women in family and society. While some put more emphasis on the physiological differences and rely on theological interpretations, some others consider them as essential differences caused by gender distinctions; the latter thinkers interpret the lawmaking system based on the essential differences between men and women. But those who believe in socialization of differences will not stand any discrimination in lawmaking. Those who believe in essential differences between men and women might be more successful if the differences are confirmed in the system of Islamic philosophy and in the realm of human soul. As a Muslim philosopher, Mulla Sadra (known as “the foremost amongst the theosophists“) believes in the substantial motion of the soul toward immateriality. The result of the substantial motion is corporeal origination of the body (haduth) and the spiritual permanence of the soul. This idea, which is peculiar to Mulla Sadra, makes the scene to talk about the gender of the soul. Within the philosophical system of Mulla Sadra’s thoughts and with regards to the principles of corporeal origination and spiritual permanence of the soul, one can start to discuss the gender of the soul, despite the disagreements among the thinkers.
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