Translating genderism, a way of manipulating gender norms

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 PhD Candidate of Translation Studies, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Language and Literature, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran,

Abstract

Genderism is a segregating ideology that unfairly divides society into two groups of “inferior” and “superior” merely based on one’s sex. Sociocultural norms are accordingly assigned and although societies agree on its discrimination, they sometimes diverge in their perspectives when dealing with it; thus, its intercultural transmission can be challenging. The present paper aims to investigate the translation of genderism from English to Persian in a case study, a novel that has deliberately been developed on gender biased concepts. Sidney Sheldon’s best-seller, The Stars Shine Down, was found eligible, whose Persian Translation was Parvaneh Ahanin by Sharaf-Aldin Sharafi (1988). Based on a CDA framework, sexist data were extracted from ST and then compared with their translations. The results revealed that TT and ST diverged greatly regarding their expression of genderism, which ultimately had modified the main intention of the ST (provoking independency and development of a “feminine” identity in females). The translation choices had turned the TT into a domesticated adaptation of the ST in favor of patriarchal agendas. While ST encourages change in culture, TT preserves the target society from possible cultural inconveniences.

Keywords


Abroshan, M. and Arjomandi, S. (2013). "Representing of gender stereotypes in the compiled Persian textbooks of Iranian elementary schools". Journal of Sociology of Education. No. 3. Pp. 7-39. (In Persian)
Anari Manafi, S. and Ghodrati, M. (2009) The role of gender in translation accuracy. Journal of Pazhuhesh-e zabanha-ye khareji. Vol 54. Pp. 143-155. (In Persian)
Baker, M. (2006). Translation and conflict: A narrative account. London: Routledge.
Baker, M. & Saldanha, G. (2011). Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Bertens, H. (2001). Literary theory: The basics. New York: Routledge.
Bressler, C. (2007). Literary criticism: An introduction to theory and practice (4th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Coates, J. (1986). Women , men and language. London: Longman.
Don, S. (2008). Gender-specific asymmetries in Chinese language. MP: An Online Feminist Journal, 2(1). Retrieved from http://academinist.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/xiaoping.pdf
Farahzad, F. and Faridzadeh, F. (2010). Gender and Translating Metaphors. Translation Studies Journal. 7 (27) Pp. 81-96 (In Persian)
Fenton, S. & Moon, P. (2002). The translatioin of the Treaty of Waitangi: A case study of disempowerment. In M. Tymoczko & E. Gentzler (Eds.), Translation and Power (pp. 25-44). Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.
Ghazanfari-Moghaddam, N., Sharifi-Moghaddam, A., & Sharififar, M. (2014). Source text analysis and translating ideology: Investigating sexism in Sidney Sheldon's The Stares Shine Down. The Iranian EFL Journal, 10(1), 151-168.
Gentzler, E. (2002) Translation, poststructruralism, and power. In M. Tymoczko & E. Gentzler (Eds.), Translation and Power (pp. 195-218). Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.
Hajmohammadi, A. (2011). Critical analysis of women's representation in TV advertisements from a cultural studies perspective. International Journal of Women's Research (1), 107-122.
Jacobson, C. (1995). Non-Sexist Language. United States: Purdue University.
Kehinde Yusuf, Y. (2002). Sexism, English and Yoruba. Linguistik Online, 11(2). Retrieved from http://www.linguistik-online.com/11_02/yusuf.html
Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and women's place. New York: Hard and Row.
Lefevere, A. (1992). Translation, history, and culture. London: Routledge.
Lei, X. (2006). Sexism in language. Journal of Language and Linguistics, 5(1), 87-94.
Munday, J. (2001). Introducing translation studies: Theories and applications. New York: Routledge.

Nakhavaly, F. & Sharifi, S. (2013). On sex discrimination in Persian proverbs. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(1), 195-200.
Paknahade jabarouti, M. (2002) Inferiority and superiority in Language. Tehran: Gaame no. ( in Persian)
Roland Murphy, G. (2000). The owl, the raven, and the dove: The religious meaning of the Grimm's magic fairy tales. Oxford: Oxford University.
Sabzalipour, J. (2014) Distinguishing gender in Taati Khalkhal dialect. Persian language and Iranian dialects. vol. 2. Pp. 65-89 ( in Persian)
Schulz, M.R. (2000). The semantic derogation of woman. In L. Burke, T. Crowley, & A. Girvin (Eds.), The Routledge Language and Cultural Theory Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 82-91.
Shariati-mazinani, S. and Sadeghi-modares, S. (2012). Representation of women in contemporary female paintings. Sociological journal of art and literature. 3 (2) pp. 35-54 (In Persian)
Sheldon, S. (1992). The stars shine down. London: HarperCollins.
Sheldon S. (1988). The Iron Butterfly. S. Sharafi (trans.) Tehran: Kooshesh. (in Persian)
Seago, K. (2005). Aspects of gender in translation of Sleeping Beauty. Journal of Comparative Critical Studies, 2(1), 23-43.
Simon, S. (1996). Gender in translation. New York: Routledge.
Spender, D. (2000). Language and reality: Who made the world? In L. Burke, T. Crowley, and A. Girvin (Eds.) The Routledge Language and Cultural Theory Reader (pp. 145-153). London: Routledge.
Tannen, D. (1990). The power of talk: Who gets heard and why? London: Harvard Business.
Tayefi, S. and Khojasteh, E. (2013). A Study and Analysis of Taboo in"Boof-e Koor". Persian Literature (Faculty of Humanities). 2 (1) Pp. 1-22. (In Persian)